san francisco earthquake 1989 deaths
1989 Loma Prieta earthquakeSan Francisco Earthquake of 1989. Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the earthquake until a US$80 million (equivalent to US$165 million today) seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was completed in 1995.  Among the four deaths, one family lost their infant son who choked on dust while trapped for an hour inside their collapsed apartment. Get this from a library! Near Loma Prieta, the 1906 rupture was more shallow, had more strike-slip, and occurred on a fault that was near vertical. Shaken – and then stirred. 498 deaths in San Francisco; 64 deaths in Santa Rosa; 102 deaths in and near San Jose; A 1972 NOAA report suggested that 700-800 was a reasonable figure. , The earthquake changed the Bay Area's automobile transportation landscape. , The contrasting characteristics of the 1906 and 1989 events were examined by seismologists Hiroo Kanamori and Kenji Satake. The Post-Standard Syracuse New York 1989-10-18-----BAY AREA BEGINNING TO DIG OUT. ), Power was restored to most of San Francisco by midnight, and all but 12,000 customers had their power restored within two days. San Francisco 1906 Earthquake Marriage Project–FREE The significant amount of vertical displacement in 1989 was a key aspect to consider because a long-term sequence of 1989-type events (with an 80–100-year recurrence interval) normally result in regions with high topographic relief, which is not seen in the Santa Cruz Mountains. , The ML 5.3 June 1988 and the ML 5.4 August 1989 events also occurred on previously unknown oblique reverse faults and were within 3 mi (4.8 km) of the M6.9 Loma Prieta mainshock epicenter, near the intersection of the San Andreas and Sargent faults. The San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989, which was also called the Loma Prieta earthquake, was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989. , San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni) lost all power to electric transit systems when the quake hit, but otherwise suffered little damage and no injuries to operators or riders.  After the Exposition, apartment buildings were erected on the landfill. On October 17, 1989, at 5:04:15 p.m. (PDT), a magnitude 6.9 earthquake severely shook the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. , The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge suffered severe damage, as a 76-by-50-foot (23 m × 15 m) section of the upper deck on the eastern cantilever side fell onto the deck below. But the quake on October 17, 1989, which measured 7.1 on the Richter scale, killed more than 60 people and caused severe damage to the Marina District and to some freeways and even more devastation to surrounding areas. An updated forecast was presented in 1988, at which time Lindh took the opportunity to assign a new name to the San Juan Bautista segment – the Loma Prieta segment. On October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m. Pacific daylight time, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale, with an epicenter in the Loma Prieta section of the San Andreas fault, occurred in northern California (Figure 1). Though the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 lasted only for a duration of roughly 20 seconds, it was one of the worst earthquakes to have hit the San Francisco Bay Area in California; leaving over 63 people dead and injuring thousands more. After ten days (the longest delay in World Series history), Game 3 was held in San Francisco on October 27 and Game 4 the following afternoon as the A's swept the Giants, four games to none. San Francisco earthquake of 1989, also called Loma Prieta earthquake, major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area, California, U.S., on October 17, 1989, and caused The 1989 Loma Prieta San Francisco earthquake was the second most devastating earthquake in SF's history. As many as six teams of dogs and their handlers were at work identifying the large number of damaged buildings that held no victims. After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a car thief was found crushed to death in the vehicle he'd stolen. Because much of the slip in 1989 occurred at depth and the rupture propagated up dip, Beroza proposed that the overlying San Andreas Fault actually inhibited further rupture and also maintains that the occurrence of an event at the location that was forecast by the WGCEP in 1988 was coincidental. The epicenter was located near Loma Prieta peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 14 km (9 mi) northeast of Santa Cruz and 96 km (60 mi) south-southeast of San Francisco. San Francisco earthquake, 1989 : death and destruction. As a consequence the normally crowded freeways contained unusually light traffic. Remarkably, the earthquake struck just before the start of the third game of the 1989 World Series, which was to be played in San Francisco’s Candlestick Park between the two Bay Area baseball teams, the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics. The baseball championship, which was suspended for 10 days, would come to be known as the “Earthquake Series.”. Each event's aftershock sequence and effect on stress drop was closely examined, and their study indicated that the shocks affected the mainshock's rupture process.  About an hour and 40 minutes after the quake, Fox affiliate KTVU resumed broadcasting, with their news anchors, Dennis Richmond and Elaine Corral reporting from the station's parking lot. The driver, Anamafi Moala, died, and the passenger, her brother, was seriously injured. 1989: San Francisco earthquake survivors On 17 October 1989, San Francisco was rocked by a powerful earthquake at just after 5pm local time. Muni relied on diesel buses to continue abbreviated service until electric power was restored later that night, and electric units could be inspected and readied for service on the morning of October 18. WORLD SERIES PUSHED BACK. 1989: Earthquake hits San Francisco.  (All four network-affiliated TV stations (KRON, KGO, KTVU and CBS affiliate KPIX) would recover enough to broadcast continuous breaking news coverage of the aftermath of the quake for the next several hours, some of it picked up and broadcast nationally over their respective networks, as well as on CNN, in a manner anticipating later major catastrophes such as the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake and the 9/11 terror attacks. , With anchorman Ted Koppel in position in Washington, D.C., ABC News began continuous coverage of the quake at 5:32 PM PDT, with Al Michaels, in the process, becoming a de facto on-site reporter for ABC. An earthquake hits the San Francisco Bay Area on October 17, 1989, killing 67 people and causing more than $5 billion in damages. , During the first few days following the quake, electric power to most Santa Cruz County subscribers was out, and some areas had no water.  Caltrans removed and replaced the collapsed section, and re-opened the bridge on November 18. San Francisco’s Marina district was particularly hard hit because it had been built on filled land (comprising loose, sandy soil), and the unreinforced masonry buildings in Santa Cruz (many of which were 50 to 100 years old) failed completely. Other ground effects included downslope movement, slumps, and ground cracks. Two billion dollars worth of destroyed property. USGS Media Gallery; References.  Police arrested those who refused to stop searching. San Francisco earthquake, 1989 : death and destruction. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/San-Francisco-earthquake-of-1989, San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989 - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).  One of these drivers did not see the open gap in time; the car plunged over the edge and smashed onto the collapsed roadbed. Updates? KGO-TV, the local San Francisco ABC affiliate (owned-and-operated) lost power for almost 15 minutes upon the start of the earthquake, before beginning its coverage with anchor Cheryl Jennings. NOW 50% OFF! , Built in the late 1950s and opened to traffic in 1957 (as SR 17), the Cypress Street Viaduct, a stretch of Interstate 880, was a double-deck freeway section made of nonductile reinforced concrete that was constructed above and astride Cypress Street in Oakland. He was in the booth when an earthquake struck at San Francisco’s Candlestick Park in 1989.  In addition, there were 3,757 injuries as a result of the earthquake, 400 of which were serious. Major property damage in San Francisco's Marina District 60 mi (97 km) from the epicenter resulted from liquefaction of soil used to create waterfront land. The earthquake was triggered by a slip along the San Andreas Fault. Medium (2005), TV show on NBC in which a character uses her coincidental presence in Oakland during the earthquake as an opportunity to fake her own death and disappear. The 1989 event's oblique-slip rupture was at 10 km and below on a fault plane that dipped 70° to the southwest. San Francisco earthquake, 1989 : death and destruction / Victoria Sherrow: title_short: San Francisco earthquake, 1989: title_sub: death and destruction: topic_facet: Disaster relief Earthquakes . Fortunately for victims of this catastrophe, coverages like property and business insurance were able to …  The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) turned people who were homeless prior to the earthquake away from homeless shelters and provided shelter for those with homes prior to the earthquake. Caltrans has since received widespread backlash for not thoroughly studying the structure. The initial media reports failed to take into account the game's effect on traffic and initially estimated the death toll at 300, a number that was corrected to 63 in the days after the earthquake. , Four people died in San Francisco's Marina District, four buildings were destroyed by fire, and seven buildings collapsed. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge was also damaged when a span of the top deck collapsed. A report of U.S. Army relief operations (Greely, 1906) recorded: . The Loma Prieta segment of the San Andreas Fault System had been relatively inactive since the 1906 San Francisco earthquake (to the degree that it was designated a seismic gap) until two moderate foreshocks occurred in June 1988 and again in August 1989. Oakland Airport repair costs were assessed at $30 million (equivalent to $65 million today). San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: Death and Destruction: Sherrow, Victoria: 9780766010604: Books - Amazon.ca 1906 San Francisco Earthquake - Compared to Loma Prieta One great value of old seismograms is that we can make quantitative comparisons of 1906 with the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.  Because of new highway structure design guidelines – the requirement of ductile construction elements – instituted following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, a limited degree of earthquake reinforcement was retrofitted to the Cypress Viaduct in 1977. Modern office towers were largely unaffected, indicating that new…, …A’s—it was noteworthy for a 7.1-magnitude earthquake that struck the Bay Area shortly before game three of the series was scheduled to begin. Several long term forecasts for a large shock along the San Andreas Fault in that area had been made public prior to 1989 (the event and its aftershocks occurred within a recognized seismic gap) but the earthquake that transpired was not what had been anticipated. , Since many forecasts had been presented for the region near Loma Prieta, seismologists were not taken by surprise by the October 1989 event. The Loma Prieta earthquake occurred in San Francisco on October 17, 1989.  Some 31 buildings were damaged enough to warrant demolition, seven of which had been listed in the Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey. More moderate damage resulted from the August 8, 1989, shock (intensity VII, Very strong) when chimneys were toppled in Cupertino, Los Gatos, and Redwood Estates. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). , The quake claimed one life in Watsonville: a driver who collided with panicked horses after they escaped their collapsed corral. The event was made even more prominent by the fact that many television stations were broadcasting live from Candlestick Park before the game, so images of the…. The strongest earthquake to hit the area since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 , it caused 63 deaths, nearly 3,800 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage. SAN FRANCISCO (KGO) -- On October 17, 1989, a 6.9 magnitude earthquake ripped through the Bay Area. San Francisco Earthquake History 1990–1994. There were five reported deaths. The duration of a typical M6.9 shock with a comparable rupture length would have been about twice as long. CBS News also began coverage around that same time with coverage from its San Francisco affiliate KPIX-TV. The disaster that I have chosen is an earthquake that occurred in San Francisco, California, US. The October 18, 1989 edition of NBC's Today that covered the earthquake ran until noon Eastern Time.  The earthquake damaged several historic buildings in the Old Town district of Salinas, and some were later demolished. When the quake struck at approximately 5:04 PDT, sportscaster Tim McCarver was narrating taped highlights of Game 2, which had been played two days prior across the Bay Bridge in Oakland. It struck just after 5:00 pm local time and lasted approximately 15 seconds, with a moment magnitude of 6.9. , The worst disaster of the earthquake was the collapse of the double-deck Cypress Street Viaduct of Interstate 880 in West Oakland. The strongest earthquake to hit the area since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 , it caused 63 deaths, nearly 3,800 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage. Click here for the lowest price! , Damage to the Salinas River rail bridge and subsequent repairs led to reduced traffic on the Monterey Branch Line, which contributed to the discontinuance of freight rail services in western Monterey County. Significant structural damage also occurred. The history of earthquake investigations in California has been largely focused on the San Andreas Fault System, due to its strong influence in the state as the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate; it is the most studied fault on Earth. The San Andreas Fault ruptured for a length of 290 mi (470 km) during the 1906 shock, both to the north of San Francisco and to the south in the Santa Cruz Mountains region. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... A discussion of the lessons learned from the Loma Prieta (San Francisco–Oakland) earthquake of 1989. , Immediately, a number of civilians began to free victims from the rubble of Ford's Department Store and the Santa Cruz Coffee Roasting Company – both buildings had collapsed inward on customers and employees alike. Earthquake-Associated Deaths -- California . Highway 17 was blocked for several weeks due to a large slide and one person was killed by a rockfall along the coast. While the teams' stadiums had suffered only minor damage, it took several days for power and transmission links at Candlestick Park to be repaired. Liquefaction was also a significant issue, especially in the heavily damaged Marina District of San Francisco, but its effects were also seen in the East Bay, and near the shore of Monterey Bay, where a non-destructive tsunami was also observed.. Death, destruction, and havoc were again visited upon the San Francisco area in 1989. Its effects included broken windows in Los Gatos, and other light damage in Holy City, where increased flow was observed at a water well. San Francisco Earthquake (1989) The Event What were the impacts? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.  In Moss Landing, the liquefaction destroyed the causeway that carried the Moss Beach access road across a tidewater basin, damaged the approach and abutment of the bridge linking Moss Landing spit to the mainland and cracked the paved road on Paul's Island. It is a rough estimate that thousands of people may have otherwise been on the Cypress Structure during the 5:00 p.m. rush-hour, as the structure was said to have carried 195,000 vehicles a day.. 12 deaths. Lessons from the Earthquake There is quite a lot to be learned from the San Francisco-Oakland earthquake of 1989 so as to contain the damages from future quakes (National, 1994).  Many homes were dislodged if they were not bolted to their foundations. Broadcaster Al Michaels reflects on his experience at the World Series in 1989, when he leaned on his Bay Area background during coverage of the devastating Loma Prieta earthquake. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park approximately 10 mi (16 km) northeast of Santa Cruz on a section of the San Andreas Fault System and was named for the nearby Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains.  Many other communities sustained severe damage throughout the region located in Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Sources place the death toll at between 63 to 68 people. After the shaking subsided, many of the players on both teams immediately searched for, and gathered, family and friends from the stands before evacuating the facility.. , While a Mercalli Intensity of VIII (Severe) covered a large swath of territory relatively close to the epicenter (including the cities of Los Gatos, Santa Cruz, and Watsonville) farther to the north, portions of San Francisco were assessed at intensity IX (Violent).  A woman was found dead inside Ford's. The most severe damage was suffered by San Francisco and Oakland, but communities throughout the region, including Alameda, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Monterey, also were affected.  In other Santa Cruz and Monterey county locations such as Boulder Creek and Moss Landing, a number of structures were damaged, with some knocked off of their foundations. , When the earthquake hit, the third game of the 1989 World Series baseball championship was about to begin. Fortunately, the same seismograph instrument at Gottingen, Germany was operating during both earthquakes. Other effects included sand volcanoes, landslides and ground ruptures. San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: Death and Destruction (American Disasters) Library Binding, 9780766010604, 0766010600 Sixty-three people died, and nearly 3,800 were injured. In San Francisco proper, the statistics present a blunt description of the damage: 12 deaths. Total displacement for these shocks was relatively small (approximately 4 in (100 mm) of strike-slip and substantially less reverse-slip) and although they occurred on separate faults and well before the mainshock, a group of seismologists considered these to be foreshocks due to their location in space and time relative to the main event.  Liquefaction also caused damage in the Watsonville area. These San Francisco Earthquake books include even more facts about the famous earthquakes in the region. ),The Loma Prieta (Santa Cruz Mountains), California, Earthquake of 17 October 1989, CDMG Special Publication 104, 1990.  At the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, the Plunge Building was significantly damaged. The collapse of a section of the double-deck Nimitz Freeway in Oakland was the site of the largest number of casualties for the event, but the collapse of man-made structures and other related accidents contributed to casualties occurring in San Francisco, Los Altos, and Santa Cruz. San Francisco earthquake of 1989, also called Loma Prieta earthquake, major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area, California, U.S., on October 17, 1989, and caused 63 deaths, nearly 3,800 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage. , The Marina district was built on a landfill made of a mixture of sand, dirt, rubble, waste and other materials containing a high percentage of groundwater.  For example, sand volcanoes formed in a field near Pajaro as well as in a strawberry field.  In the Old Town historical district of the city of Salinas, unreinforced masonry buildings were partially destroyed. Photograph Collection: "Bay Area Quake – Landmarks Totter – Preservationists Fear Quake-Damaged Historic Buildings Will Be Torn Down", "The California Quake: The Bay Bridge; Damage to Link Across Bay Is More Serious Than Thought", "On the Cypress Freeway, Strangers Joined Together for a Snap in Time", "People Moving Gingerly As They Pick Up Pieces", "Man Who Lived 90 Hours In Quake Rubble Is Dead", "Mandela Parkway: Building Pride in West Oakland", "Search For Bodies to Take Days – State Puts Toll at 273, Then Says It Is Uncertain", "Municipal Railway Earthquake Notebook Tuesday, October 17, 1989, 5:04 PM", "Earthquake leaves behind urban travel nightmares", San Francisco-Oakland bay bridge opens to traffic after years of delays | World news, National Association of Railroad Passengers, "Bay Area / Revived push for water-transit network / Emergency system seen as necessary after a big quake", KTVU comes back on-air after 1989 earthquake, "The Bay Area Quake : Pressure Points : What Worked, What Didn't, What Didn't, And Why : Nimitz Freeway : Collapse of Deck Puts Spotlight on Aging Roads", "FULL EPISODE: Loma Prieta Earthquake, 30 Years Later", "Geologic and historical factors affecting earthquake damage", "Aftershocks of the Loma Prieta earthquake and their tectonic implications", State of California, Office of Planning and Research, "Observations of multiple liquefaction events at Soda Lake, California, during the earthquake and its aftershocks", "Reflections 20 Years Later in Loma Prieta – Whole Mountain Source Book", "October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake – United States Geological Survey", "The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake – Selected Photograph – United States Geological Survey", "Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 17, 1989. An estimated 3,757 people were injured and there were 67 reported fatalities. , It is likely that the World Series game saved many lives, as Bay Area residents who would have normally been on the freeways were at home ready to watch the game when the earthquake hit. Local History. , The June 27, 1988, shock occurred with a maximum intensity of VI (Strong).  Instead of rebuilding Interstate 880 over the same ground, Caltrans rerouted the freeway farther west around the outskirts of West Oakland to provide better access to the Port of Oakland and the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, and to meet community desires to keep the freeway from cutting through residential areas (at the time the original viaduct was constructed, West Oakland was predominantly occupied by African and Hispanic-Americans). The San Francisco-based punk music group Loma Prieta derived their name from the 1989 earthquake. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on California’s Central Coast on October 17 at 5:04 p.m. local time. Andrew Lawson, a geologist from the University of California, Berkeley, had named the fault after the San Andreas Lake (prior to the occurrence of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake) and later led an investigation into that event. [Victoria Sherrow] -- Details the events surrounding the earthquake that took place in the San Francisco Bay Area in October 1989, as well as the clean-up and recovery efforts that followed. On October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m. Pacific daylight time, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale, with an epicenter in the Loma Prieta section of the San Andreas fault, occurred in northern California (Figure 1). Typical California earthquake focal depths are 4 to 6 miles the famous earthquakes in the south to Bay. 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