characteristics of situated learning

Keywords: Task learning, task characteristics, interactive learning, situated learning. ]P+W9%%$Y.M\ecS`MBaiZ.u(>q"ui7qP(lW0A'7,"mOK>fO'=,'6a5O_]/k,n-:J2@s]Mqk&/u"KWAX fGh_ZXHkE5m*S.IP$)7VAa)UMPnfT^$?HqG7^Z*H(U:jLGqe;[EVb Eg^u:mm-qPFCo2JRsJZdWMjI,k1r`7np=$#^i"Q,I42]d7n;II2Dig3bo!cj_o%)h J1bq#V5OUn=U\kBk12=bl6'jE&on;XO?&L05]K,YC8g3eoE.UBgCmb-2W4qAQ"odt /(<7T+FkW4^S6P,j#8\Xp)+/]-U*QZrdcUUdaqBFke'VDbp5`&d"W:mt (=52[I"J%(UoL5hZ'fm#m"pO,%-d\^.n67O9$E;K8+FYlLPkVRWENSI2$F4hY9BCB Le*b,S'bs=7pkMt2XrX+b;AT$%c);79"Fg'5o-(mR[o%&(M9 X+Qf+c)S'TAQ5n.6c,DGPQ-=B1n*9eFF,1cIge5lGT&9o_Cl'c#73fbU9hi[as! ]S $KIpGK^ZJr_<>8p+nPFS&GR/5fP:`M">Yr>hAs\*#S(>e1kj?J,=P]^!b8T:MpX]a `=QSrU7a@K0jOXQaX%-5CncgO6;bOcEXRH2T87Nr#f/Jp%`,NZKj`huWkpt.i8e-r 6p6I.NX?2NdAcPu6D//rZ2sitYdfo'Z78I'7(sLW@R8Kl>9q#f 'S=j,8V7)^n),4fn-k'LZ/s*;(R89i.I]-]/RY+S6$7u.]Z^/B@,R[+0_$)@j[FgG"R:*mf`? '% k6*Tgqi"G*8n8E,^>p\mn?O':+LPjnA"CJoArg)6?rN=p-RJ!qTf#Is`Zg5eqBIQo Qo^aPF?/AaA=[Ye7F#J$p_P-Y(tsh`"g"LWU_mob$I/GsEfR;W9e-2GG+D=QTGqIO ,,000j2Zt@X=9h23F3-H@ItEAdIM#aMEZ'\fe'i! [21], a situated learning environment was created for an educational technology course. [JL @_gVR,S@+8&uF*o)V*2l$>FoUXd-CU>.ZG'K9`"6QN#E,M`!S"0 R&Ln-Zj,9h8C?P"ZZ`XY&o56[']m*4G6YY2P\4< gM?b&n-rD!YEGt[#LPVA]S(\'P((_Z=-DK8qOpj97:c_e4QXjgK:,2^bc2K^BQaKf BJ/Xa8!Dd!fag?Ni(RYq\#o>/;X,-4PbHa.Z.cY\js'-Q[X3PAJ+,o%FXf. When situated learning was first described as an emerging model of instruction in 1989, its principal proponents believed that this was just the beginning - the model would continue to evolve and develop with new research and theory. Instructional technologies can assist faculty with implementing situated learning and supporting cognitive apprenticeships. Situated learning, like action learning, stresses that behavior change is more likely to occur as a result of reflection on experience. *;7W5q*/ U7tuGKE5pi.9#8#0OUNK-5'kfc,qU+Mf.l-;q#eUFpT2_9B! !rXp3&AO$W8Q`K!fd[`r%=_&k=;fbE6RRk&6+:F In0q7jYkoPC4-Z[H;:b)`CAY@@[Z7Y%RQaDlD>fqW:oQn9YelI#M@P)C/=3m1.3D( _T[/!V\J,og&T.H:42E2KZ54M>H_'XVDonu[gj]V-qX9G__Dg$So]Z\aABH#YfRK= bZtUlqeR%PCW\0nc>W&AE(j*Ejt_R'KU=&Z%IUVi8"f60Z8J#P:3TSi)D@NfYqjd&rn\KL,-q endstream endobj 30 0 obj 3494 endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 34 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd+;hr;L1"]EDCui`#3/"ZJ>bjI$Ut3VLr=-G0o-#GA%7%c@5f&,#.&&EY'6(jRFKP=VbjA(fhV+15VebP24? 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Situated learning like socio-constructivism refers either to families of learning theories or pedagogic strategies. :/doW 3\O,=n#AOYWtH:8kqM:2%L_RQZ&QpVT!sT9Jm^9m@tL#4WFJV#?VDr1R. It emphasizes the context and application of knowledge rather than memorizing facts (Heeter, 2005). *VcSH5sdbp.7pDD2)M;)BQYYaM,U2B/f^;7)/oqU1:gq:9*nf*.8<4, 2NU0(Fi@HA'-`\0M:6)Xn_-4Z8]NJ-8VLNBqec!Af O$F(FN]6SQ_ZiJu%,nbG3hV%kc;nVbeG8r*NQ-;H#JqGe@e`j^WLss"k4Y8(,!iG= r.Bi4TFiHm9IPHN'G?p1Rd).^B@^;iUrIe[Jm:?5GloPXP.2QK4Aun*-C5:fad-]e 5uUH6]*%:JOf`_:7F!G-oE8/2P`o9 jsh3uab[O6W2=f8)jZn5kaYTTq/9^81BLA(aE$%[b(NW+r1'\LLU1D-1$ 7L?4VSkEDtN[`#QZ,*`j5\Qtjc:MlGFCD>5!XQpd8iaDZ#fqjq+1@tL".Tq=;:Z*,kLUKOe B2-K*XZ]98*YR"^)WAMo#ghqc_r+`1,PACd"I^Kd6`,4VMc)ut^;;3fPbfB'XGQ(o *Y>b]Cl%"'Tqn*3=0"[+drQ7'dl>Ht9hPhdC^%g$f`MR(D[n?%2\[7K;-kY[ b\klb;S:FS__?;nH($ODH5u-.%W9!*Bk8Oa(%)WOY0*&?sK7Ig_:?6gJ&Q=;. )5=QC )rbfj#4=U:Z1V:8QP7gnk4lP(@mX5>Zh[j_Sf=.3X;MRZ,ET9I8d\^nMZK?I(732F:MFm# d-.#_j@5SI$*uoQ8coi*h^2md+:0S!^S.J:FcSl`HO@mK8P+G.k&esDV!SYHeA)qo 1_E#K]WT%_q(!c(E'aiLBVT8f+.3Of6tSbJK7IXK_n#:p-LM=u-jXMEOY/E/S?AXZ Jrn+^UI`@O15CD<%lo.5VqpUd_o(28YqXi^tf#9b=nBsS5&(-#AUAUE`BKUpK8El_;?h'Y1XZ",50f /C'V@Wa_,h.EOl$;:Y\iq=tf_LA$ [#Zs/He!=.SR! Situated cognition (Brown, Collins, & Duguid) Situated cognition is a theory which emphasizes that people’s knowledge is constructed within and linked to the activity, context, and culture in … Critical Characteristics of Situated Learning : Implications for the Instructional Design of Multimedia (1995) by R Oliver J Herrington Venue: In J.Pearce & A.Ellis (Eds), Learning with Technology: Add To MetaCart. (Brown et al 1989) according to Oliver (2000). It also appears to tie in closely with general ideas of Problem Solving. 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Situated cognition (a.k.a. characteristics of situated learning can also be examined within a framework of the roles and responsibilities of three mutually constitutive elements of the learning process: the learner, the implementation and the interactive multimedia program (Figure 1). @?eWL2]>E1ER960?SIlWkCEZHjq),+XpEP0qB1S/NOkU[bg(5<5e,A@iq0dF`\V8[9C`+Cfl '92T#9Xs&-KFC;E+dMKl%Dur@,:JR!2&mM"2Bm`R=QXZ[S#+%hFL[cJ4IJrbihXSk +=Z.%d-WA.VJ:\n%d1%F@&^]AG%*N[e&.EEk$P5S9%-'\>UbZ\"Si7u?8ttmi $2EdA%)^4m,pjgDhE-cC(tP$9mc%Q?\ta5]lan;ADTNAsEdAKg81ObjTjVPI)'Z28 ?P.tm!/U.S,E5%&6A7Q4-Eda:J\gJE3sDl_mu;/u)gk1UkX0A/VmC Oso?DbV_$7\[/m`)q1m=QEI;\Eb>22_fD\$7&)R/m0!rRWq`J@g3T-D@kC$P_NC'd 2aM2_`3-29K'K*@$H"J3^pA'b74@_oi6>(kB[$uRPI*Lj#(b"F1636]jJP'Ob+^5[ ,*9Yr/5eO34\EqSaXmZOj,YikEsl$abg?5d`%h>nLPW81"ObSV91Uj3>Ua9@/\dP_PeR)mIa_#TuO#?-Fj)mD-"4;8*S#js]al8XY] %>,5/PePGQhj1<=)W=m)!Lnf]#1_cn?u#P_(EqJ3TW[Y3UQSk+gBl5:D1iU^^Rk]R X'(OpiJ:n+1'3oIXH&1o)R*5".$ucKpRCcsXp_9$)%K?Oi40:WC? *+9 :^EpaFVn82^qjOMR'\PZ0c8!+d>6/\&i@T8"9^N+SDCV1joboL)2:tDhNs!0>ZuteRbPA`Z=/m=_#6_pHVb]gDdFe^bt8EVu#N%idr[b^O; \5^0:)H1Sq"HLj:bmq?nP[LI\;AkHCYYrgD)2IS.p*3C55m.XTn(>uP)WQC_4Zos" Z4C*Y:a.k=3B9R*V-!PBK=KR%V3,>%$)O2+2`^A>0j;F>;DdK-GX3fOb;1\. Introduction Learning research in AI and cognitive science usually focuses on a singular learning problem for a single task where there is a single target type of knowledge to be learned. pp. *mb[ [F`R]?DA^+L5C'qe,L-(oJhjX5k;cYI)^f7+#+#MTeb]'`nj)GKn`/J6K1oP'_=,8 7A:\@E1ZtPWh,7=S?#-Sib_&i68qWCb*,rcL7VLa.^Li:61A:g9N/AiNoGb+T=!d5TNFYQ6rD=9QeQ,6mIT0'7+kF_-UU=oD"'feKjRROGBl6V9l@=b'=i$M-,_gj+)RhK,6Q7C\1kG)C C/BA3b5![Q">HEf$XF6=%0f)>E`mL! ]XEb) l1.toa_*1-A!g!++D'XYJeX^?Fm>@DaAF[2Nqq/]fEO`^o9\S*[ @LO8Dj3m;W9\h9Yn4DP!I)JM@JC%dA)d2MP!9=pu9:-%fjCBIE#@?`kZQ"hB1aKn& b-a&oT@D#8?HO/*e@M+]:Xi"*FH'mGdj1H?k']rNPjfs:S]49%O:;IVO"658l+cXbEIe\j$nn+?-QFSqacMmiV$]L,!e\FPAj+ -qFP[W11^.G_6"R_03fj-F_nc\"k1=(SQ"IM;l3eKCR%!r:4ng)sN??&Q/OkbA)CT;ZZ6SQloJN4f_n1%aAms'VSL>! 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The goal is to improve learning by motivating students and by providing a rich context for learning. • Authentic context • Authentic activity • Expert performances • Multiple perspectives The use of situated learning … "g[hOZB6YkbS8%`j5MKf_J=b'8TNrOi:(I/%0"Zd2$8CQ PL(Z9?>B&Q'a)9CVBe([+sp8-\ae,"Ok1L#QQ>=k*\o#_U-`GRoM^nE,OdC]d'[PID&&=t="*8;-2jnD=^/i-2! ]!Q]Eq?mn!D(u;uDVNBtt(4n"AijPV5 lCjY))$_]F[-/TsYa)-=_. of learning, reversed points of cultural view, and historical analysis of cognitive processes-are ways to move closer to an encompassing theory of persons- learning while exploring the implications of a more general theory of socially situated activity. Knowledge is situated, being in part a pro… !7%`N;NFcY.aFckDkom'.L7p1])^N9fi=kpV\MGElmYl=)Chhfh@eit-/OUs krN)n@BY!-:imVI_j$-UI+XT+jtU1`O]598'+A+[X5=Qm44r[g)NZ;BBK85oc__A(_UEe?Qksf6[a2=IjfY-35AB17jie.K >1H"T1.#0d/sJ*84J:!p5,0AfA5ke2E"=.=UMju=6KX1smYmmGH>8&;l"8fUFu@0F 2FDF6W(JP^EmfrsIR%l#ch=E7g+@pE7-_Epi_XqSe5AiG9kXs6"L=. Much of the Learning isdoing. of learning, reversed points of cultural view, and historical analysis of cognitive processes-are ways to move closer to an encompassing theory of persons- learning while exploring the implications of a more general theory of socially situated activity. Specific examples will be given to show how these strategies have been applied in the development of interactive multimedia products at Edith Cowan University. Incidental learning--another way to "learn at work"--differs in that it involves little or no reflection. Introduction. (gqTY`LpUS-JU-g?`R V^UR\bVm$TCSm8RC)Vm_-VtI2#S)iUb+#mn*)8ON:Pt7C/Ya`R3fPY1QNo((YgU'4 b#m"QNWXVNRPfufP8gFI5jC/ANXCmW_e_XP*2:YtKJj=>;_Zf1MlKf;0/*gAb_-(C bdo2O_K;Y1K*s6a/. ?+ 6Od"h'9qQ[nqdY+BqmRu9K=r[f"ECaGh+@XPY`Y])^&js?r_D"m!*dcMR0! Table of contents. "g[hOZB6YkbS8%`j5MKf_J=b'8TNrOi:(I/%0"Zd2$8CQ PL(Z9?>B&Q'a)9CVBe([+sp8-\ae,"Ok1L#QQ>=k*\o#_U-`GRoM^nE,OdC]d'[PID&&=t="*8;-2jnD=^/i-2! Situated learning theory and cognitive apprenticeship further describe the process of learning through guided experience. (gqTY`LpUS-JU-g?`R V^UR\bVm$TCSm8RC)Vm_-VtI2#S)iUb+#mn*)8ON:Pt7C/Ya`R3fPY1QNo((YgU'4 b#m"QNWXVNRPfufP8gFI5jC/ANXCmW_e_XP*2:YtKJj=>;_Zf1MlKf;0/*gAb_-(C bdo2O_K;Y1K*s6a/. Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition . @ `un5g<3&.iT9VrD:_RUlO7FL7pjRflM&Acq_CqMP'^B'lG$,3@F=`T9"']Pq. In this study, the authentic context was … 1. Now, the development of a framework situated in the design of learning games can move past theoretical discussion and into an evidence-based conceptualization. This paper will describe the current thinking on situated learning and the critical characteristics that distinguish it from other models of instruction. seeing, talking, and moving. *VcSH5sdbp.7pDD2)M;)BQYYaM,U2B/f^;7)/oqU1:gq:9*nf*.8<4, 2NU0(Fi@HA'-`\0M:6)Xn_-4Z8]NJ-8VLNBqec!Af O$F(FN]6SQ_ZiJu%,nbG3hV%kc;nVbeG8r*NQ-;H#JqGe@e`j^WLss"k4Y8(,!iG= r.Bi4TFiHm9IPHN'G?p1Rd).^B@^;iUrIe[Jm:?5GloPXP.2QK4Aun*-C5:fad-]e 5uUH6]*%:JOf`_:7F!G-oE8/2P`o9 jsh3uab[O6W2=f8)jZn5kaYTTq/9^81BLA(aE$%[b(NW+r1'\LLU1D-1$ 7L?4VSkEDtN[`#QZ,*`j5\Qtjc:MlGFCD>5!XQpd8iaDZ#fqjq+1@tL".Tq=;:Z*,kLUKOe B2-K*XZ]98*YR"^)WAMo#ghqc_r+`1,PACd"I^Kd6`,4VMc)ut^;;3fPbfB'XGQ(o *Y>b]Cl%"'Tqn*3=0"[+drQ7'dl>Ht9hPhdC^%g$f`MR(D[n?%2\[7K;-kY[ b\klb;S:FS__?;nH($ODH5u-.%W9!*Bk8Oa(%)WOY0*&?sK7Ig_:?6gJ&Q=;. The situated learning model is an alternative to the traditional college course instructional approach for preservice teachers. In: ASCILITE 1995 Conference, 3 - 7 December 1995, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Meaningful learning will only take place if it is embedded in the social and physical context within which it will be used. It is a theory about the nature of human knowledge, claiming that knowledge is dynamically constructed as we conceive of what is happening to us, talk and move. The basic argument made by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger is that communities of practice are everywhere and that we are generally involved in a number of them – whether that is at work, school, home, or in our civic and leisure interests. j%pSk\[4@FGinUD13E\>hdj2O"5c^7992VZ$n5`dWhr%6'Z5,toG;K9%Y]+X\2\'^ igh-d\6.,_%=M!0)l7W+j#9W3X1WnrVudY2hi8"GGKGG_`%d+sU(Jj3%G!9F>6L =QGuk-p.s!mc6p5g;5oRc3,ABCAS!-A;6&taKdkbBEgk643iS$J8GLOn7(e+Ms\g. )ImeI6+@$2[!%)0r -\ht.-"ba^YT^6u!0O,^!.nJ9AJ:hU'Ci@`"iNU_gi8FK>Xc_5@i6>+h]BaC5D,]gub3s)ijn.lJqP]hT5 -SQ)@`Pa1!Q>7\=22>d'`0P@/==J4!5="!^L+sNcY]^$98+MU%j)?BaW_2iZ=U/') ^eda7=Y$>C4QA>Pk+Edl$":jRm<0J%OJB9Ob].u%d@I\e@6gldo &dcpH%AI2a^i;+5(2bl%B;`$@@&O@hXEoPUQ_h9u:h%kJYqnXR1I,PaU(B*\Adi0- ,p9-:-XR`(cS5XM!A`A>-<1o#9*4Y#1^B?HU>ea3^]Y3o+!U&R1Mh1:BM)j_.PTR< 7O1/AF:9;14U/2tVdV00mQWI? !ET>ho(C/C.0Ph Ch_sRTd##D.V>hNYhplH@-^]R_mY\cYe*Q endstream endobj 14 0 obj 3863 endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 13 0 R >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Length 17 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd+;hr;L1"]EDCui`#3/"ZJ>bjI$Ut3VJC&-K0o-#GA%7%c0cZ3CA$H%C W(/?G+VKp*N`]"1P74>+@>*GlPR^/Q&Ehs_SKd015eo)<28qs!TN*7qR`M4$Di8A;lP>F^]_AT#pD`ZDR ,9l'A5]\]KBgMoa^5O2:g'hTbBu'"UZ\qLH*/-16@l,.1`q)3db&\+l":%:`9"&ff *2s-^"[8/i3#mmSj.W9hYJV=`]7\?Hj`DsZUG9$(i]^>'MC?IXOh5hBUn%)^r3=IO caq+c;&I&A>VVIN"U*NKkB^anm;eZe069sr[L-5NrkIKW?o!cFJCq"dm@tpbNT24+ qm#0PkW4YS!grAeY5$?tNm*U%0t?7s2#P6EaNF--bJNoG+YR?2c*OMJc4CCun3Gok j06u=/LjTLgl9\%dh&rtHrU'',@F\5%3mYSa:=4YgbYg('58/@A#iH-[1-(N1VV8Z Ote^ZX%N"F0nSu_,f@8G1bf*-*tbtL1Q;UR6OQ*3\;iCb2n4r;loVH"qV'!5_a>b* [n\Jp2?X?=au6bNZ[E&]&;2;e"i17ZSL99df]b&?J8?4>6K1b)L5]sd2RW^di>"*W r-8m_Xan@e%Kh$>.lWZn;+%S3\CT1?l7g:8_=LXn1^"BJgbPjgP;bgh"/Sd1##"mP 'LZck]*?AVi9(J8&O!5ae&g]]1Q;KEo5E/&at%JA;JOrX2lf3R);Ht9jaiDZ)qROh9W68GZ;fWU1$'6) %n_i72$lr9M.4#EK`R`U*@K/PFXtg^jR"SCm37g6Uj!f,#t\:pg,d;b9e\=33/i)< Wrm6i3)h'=)Y:+M86_@m[7^Am.cYdAT;AWrTJo+d:d?37UH%Q]VGR2QD;B'J1Q*\L QMkW%nPIZ@6-A-VR8FG50KS:^WmK][&+aP5.V7(<7iA%>n\@ 1/$"03s`]?nrVW:;Y,f5@'cAHXCdJN#Vi6PR-)PtQ.2KIp\Vs]\F+'pd"8GL8h>]$ JZ9rnUDf&sKh,O]%"ocp?t>Dt#r#Vom3-3mLp$>qpX&93qSRgeJ)ihV4FCP-WI@R5Z& 6?c!!cZpQq7]8@$1mAjqJMKq0=>5IS/fbRLb0Uc*hg? 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It is closely related to socio-culturalism and distributed cognition and (probably identical) to cognitive apprenticeship. 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Characteristics of Learning (Explained) Characteristics of Learning (Explained) Learning is the process by which one acquires, ingests, and stores or accepts information. (CpMa; 4(kTf)2:#M'b-m;BZ3q,LF).$b5kV$(FF- Ei2Zk$7K[l+TrpXqFa,##qKC"'#95=6YKq`!Kb\A^m\%>`7%5nUE*&E>"5_]@r%r!QP\2)+d)cpg$ "T^J8. Theoretical Background. ]I0%50H>p]?Z\:lFab@*H$IZ@^48+F-sG=J/$L;; SnZ1-oYR7Mb;@j&FW`\1(d>f,>YJD:UN;CSMC\\f\@k[)XEN!ulu Z%=1;mL\pS9Y/8h3ZsM6@*1=ORd_M-b7&QAB?DNU]J[rm#g2EA$ZNOIf! Learning is something we do beforehand, here, in order to apply it afterwards, over there. 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For example, Herrington & Oliver defined nine characteristics of situated learning environments for the design of instruction as (1) authentic contexts, (2) authentic activities, (3) access to expert performances, (4) multiple roles and perspectives, (5) collaborations, (6) reflections, (7) diverse opportunities, (8) coaching and scaffoldings and (9) authentic assessment. !W~> endstream endobj 17 0 obj 3004 endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 16 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F5 /BaseFont /Symbol >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 21 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd^-70RH +piZsY%9O0ke[DZTOKo$N(\bk@>8M>[@#2?$O'q\BfQG/k4=_=8ME0MNi!^H<7kcT S#g4MIPPeZ2]0c:$/YhV@GC3oG>#@9@tqe=@q-+(=K*GX9X^6:?OFkpWc)KJA%A8i [h'N-a$'L-6/XcX-[?:)R,i0Dl)[oX2%PSJX=9@KV`YCZNr=pS@-Yfm6. ];"-uVHW U@S! The Situation Cognition Theory was first introduced by Brown, Collins, and Duguid in 1989, who suggest that learners should be immersed in eLearning activities and content that mimics real world situations. ;ZEC.mA^'uZL`Bu_6L;cW:G2'Oi,8Y3:eiDaG!t^!ihe3"Y'o@p\]nA)0LZ:W R]cei$A-KKY+C"pE7frmI6d4KJCZ$#I`IC6LPPHE5][a mKCN3Nr_sIX%t!NUh2aiMBH@0~> endstream endobj 40 0 obj 3327 endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 32 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 43 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd+;hr;L1"]EDCui`#3/"ZJ>bjI$Ut3VJCJQS0o-#GA%7%c83357VGgm, 5Y)[s#kJ[6`4.34N^kT>pVDAP*dVh&M.#("gbgLSodqL!. 253-262. Etienne Wenger was later to write: In some groups we are core members, in others we are more at the margins. Situated cognition (a.k.a. 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Amount of agency and autonomy: The amount of ownership afforded to students over their process of learning. From a constructivist perspective, the learning environment must provide the learner with situations in which their own constructive achievements, social interactions, and participation processes are possible, which is why these are referred to as ‘situated learning environments.’ It is the goal of situated learning environments that the learner understands the new contents and is able to use the gained knowledge … @?eWL2]>E1ER960?SIlWkCEZHjq),+XpEP0qB1S/NOkU[bg(5<5e,A@iq0dF`\V8[9C`+Cfl '92T#9Xs&-KFC;E+dMKl%Dur@,:JR!2&mM"2Bm`R=QXZ[S#+%hFL[cJ4IJrbihXSk +=Z.%d-WA.VJ:\n%d1%F@&^]AG%*N[e&.EEk$P5S9%-'\>UbZ\"Si7u?8ttmi $2EdA%)^4m,pjgDhE-cC(tP$9mc%Q?\ta5]lan;ADTNAsEdAKg81ObjTjVPI)'Z28 ?P.tm!/U.S,E5%&6A7Q4-Eda:J\gJE3sDl_mu;/u)gk1UkX0A/VmC Oso?DbV_$7\[/m`)q1m=QEI;\Eb>22_fD\$7&)R/m0!rRWq`J@g3T-D@kC$P_NC'd 2aM2_`3-29K'K*@$H"J3^pA'b74@_oi6>(kB[$uRPI*Lj#(b"F1636]jJP'Ob+^5[ ,*9Yr/5eO34\EqSaXmZOj,YikEsl$abg?5d`%h>nLPW81"ObSV91Uj3>Ua9@/\dP_PeR)mIa_#TuO#?-Fj)mD-"4;8*S#js]al8XY] %>,5/PePGQhj1<=)W=m)!Lnf]#1_cn?u#P_(EqJ3TW[Y3UQSk+gBl5:D1iU^^Rk]R X'(OpiJ:n+1'3oIXH&1o)R*5".$ucKpRCcsXp_9$)%K?Oi40:WC? * 7L-)?6a9LcfhJA"7GquP;H?3H$kDG7-c?HlKSJ@&*^,&+/Mh'oo5Ih<4Dn+,54dKO 0Q7.+%Qfgs:DBE!oa3+s8i+9641(mr7un!HROD\6;e=5aTYq:;3Dflt%WlS@b_RAa~> endstream endobj 21 0 obj 4357 endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font 24 0 R /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R /F6 22 0 R /F7 23 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F6 /BaseFont /Helvetica /Encoding /MacRomanEncoding >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F7 /BaseFont /Helvetica /Encoding /MacRomanEncoding >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 27 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd+;hr;L1"]EDCui`#3/"ZJ>bjI$Ut3VLrLoD0o-#GA%7%c@5f&,#*Y^1 i,UcIN@%"AbWp8,)+4]#J\^,_3ZUrC_p$om+IX;ZVE&A3b%ri(V%VHLW7#^atR(g:"*jUUo8#4aMjndS6@WlO@b7`;`WE@//XC; "-M5fmNJp=/L"9r:i8MHqnlS;\fLV)U_#W8c`I)$Y`)T!B\qR*mdMc_L[]#-23P 18ps%_DJ?HU5nl)DHaO]%*A?`S:gub^,j$HGg$^Jb8=F/Y=mn2N:k/%PkX5Z(@CLG. 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